Information About Nagaland - History Geography Culture Food

History of Nagaland
History believes that Kiratas, or golden skinned people, lived in Nagaland long back. Anthropologists suggest people of Nagaland belong to the Mongoloid race. Nagaland got its name from the Burmese word Naka which means pierced noses or people with earrings. They are many controversies about this, but widely accepted. Tribes of Nagaland were known for their bravery and "head hunting" practices. Japanese invaded Nagaland through Burma in 1944, but was forced to withdraw from the war. After Independence in 1947, Nagaland became part of province of Assam. After many revolutions present day Nagaland became Union Territory in 1957. On 1st December 1963, Nagaland became one of the states of India.

Geography of Nagaland
Nagaland is located on the north eastern part of India. It is surrounded by Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Manipur. It share international border with Burma. Mount Saramati is the highest peak in the state with an elevation of 12,601.70 feet from sea level. 20% of the state is covered by wooded forest. Nagaland has monsoon climate with high humidity levels. Nagaland is spread in an area of 16579 sq kms making it one of the smallest states in the country.

Government and Administration of Nagaland
Special powers and autonomy are granted for Naga tribes to conduct their own affairs. Each tribe has a hierarchy of councils, range, and tribal levels dealing with local disputes. For administration purpose Nagaland is divided into eleven districts. Nagaland legislative assembly consists of 60 seats. Nagaland contributes one member to the Indian Assembly.

Language and culture of Nagaland
Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, are some of the 16 tribes in the state. They are future divided into sub categories. Weaving, producing shoulder bags, decorative spears, table mats, shawls, wood carvings, and bamboo works are famous in the state. Each tribe has distinct style and colors. Folk songs and dances plays major role in traditional Naga culture. Naga folk songs are romantic and historical. Folk songs narrate entire stories of famous ancestors and incidents of the state. People of Nagaland speak nearly 36 languages and dialects. English is the official language in Nagaland. Nagamese, Assamese, are spoken in the state followed by Ao, Konyak, Lotha, Angami, Phom etc.

Education Status in Nagaland
Literacy rate of Nagaland is approximately 80%. Children below 14 years are entitled to “free and compulsory education” in Nagaland. They are many colleges in the state which are offering different courses. Nagaland University is one of the important educational institutions in the state. Some educational institutes in Nagaland reserves seats for outstation and foreign students.

Economy of Nagaland
Nagaland’s GSDP was 12065 crore in the year 2011-2012. State’s GSDP has increased approximately 10% compounded annually for a decade now. Agriculture and forestry are the major factors driving the economy of state. Nagaland is rich in mineral resources like coal, cobalt, limestone, iron, nickel, chromium, and marble. Maximum people in the state depend on rural cultivation, rice, millet, maize, and pulses being the main crops. Sugarcane and potato are the main cash crops.

Tourism in Nagaland
Changtongya is a small town in the state which is haven for many spices of birds. Many birds come from Mongolia and Germany. Dzukou or the Dzukou valley is at an elevation of 2438 meters from sea level is a trekker’s paradise. Fakim Sanctuary is covered with hills, meandering brooks, and narrow valleys, is a beautiful wildlife sanctuary. Intanki Wildlife Sanctuary is the heaven for many animals and birds. Japfu Peak is at elevation of 3048 meters from the sea level and it covered with thick bamboo bushes. Khonoma Gate speaks about the British intrusion in the villages of the Naga tribes and it is one of the major attractions in the state. Meluri is a scenic beauty with exceptional green hills and small, meandering rivers. Nagaland state museum show cases the culture of the state. Handicrafts are one of the major incomes in the state and also attracting tourism to the state.

Festivals Celebrated in Nagaland
Nagaland is a land of many festivals. Horn Bill Festival is celebrated in the first week of December. This festival represents the cultural extravaganza of the state. Moatsu Festival is an agriculture festival celebrated in the month of May. Nazu Festival is celebrated for 10 days in the month of May, before sowing the seeds. Sekrenyi Festival is celebrated in the month of February where young people sit together and sing traditional songs. Tuluni Festival is celebrated in the second week of July, to rejoice the fruitful season.

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