Information About Jammu and Kashmir - History Geography Culture

History of Jammu and Kashmir
Maharaja Hari Singh was the ruler of Kashmir from 1925 to 1947. During partition of India, British has given chance to opt either India or Pakistan or remain independent. Locals and tribesman backed Pakistan and Maharaja fought back with the help of Governor-General Louis Mountbatten, who agreed on the condition that the Maharaja agrees to opt India. Diplomatic relations between India and Pakistan was soured and three wars were fought in Kashmir. In 1962, 60% of Kashmir was under Indian control, 30% under Pakistan and 10 % under China.

Geography of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir is located on the northern part of India mostly in the Himalayan Mountains. It shares national borders with Himachal Pradesh and Punjab and international borders with Pakistan and China. Jammu and Kashmir houses many valleys like Kashmir Valley, Tawi Valley, Chenab Valley etc. Jhelum River, Indus, Tawi, Ravi and Chenab are the major rivers in the state. State is spread in an area of 222236 sq. km making it the fifth largest state in the country.

Government and Administration of Jammu and Kashmir
For administration purpose Jammu and Kashmir is divided into three divisions and 22 districts. Though Siachen Glacier, is under Indian Military it doesn’t come under state administration. Jammu and Kashmir enjoys special autonomy under Article 370 of the Constitution of India. According to this act no law enchanted by Indian Parliament is applicable, except communication, foreign policy and defense. Jammu and Kashmir has its own official state flag along with national flag and constitution. Jammu and Kashmir has six year term where as other Indian states follow five year terms. Jammu and Kashmir National Conference, Jammu and Kashmir People's Democratic Party, Bharatiya Janata Party and Indian National Congress are the major political parties in the state.

Language and Culture of Jammu and Kashmir
Woolen shawls, Pottery, Woven carpets; silk carpets, rugs, etc. are the important crafts of the state. Music in Jammu and Kashmir is known as Sufiana Kalam. Kashmiri music was influenced by Iranian music. Nagara, santoor, Dukra and Sitar are the musical instruments used by locals. Rabab and Rouff are the popular folk music and folk dance of the state respectively. Kashmiri Pulao and the traditional green tea with spices and almond known as Kawa are the famous cuisine of the state. Jammu and Kashmir dress comprises a long loose gown buttoning at the neck and falling to the ankles. Urdu is the official language of Jammu and Kashmir. Kashmiri, Dogri, Pahari, Balti, Ladakhi, Gojri, Shina and Pashto are widely spoken in the state.

Educational Status of Jammu and Kashmir
Literacy rate of Jammu and Kashmir is approximately 67%. Jammu and Kashmir government established its own education board and university in 1970. NIT Srinagar, IIT Jammu, Sher-e-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, are some of the important educational institutions in the state.

Economy of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir’s economy is mainly dependent on agriculture. Kashmiri saffron brings good amount of foreign exchange. Handicrafts, rugs, and shawls are exported from the state. In agriculture products apples, barley, cherries, corn, millet, etc. are exported. Horticulture is playing a major role in the economic development of the state. Recently many consumer goods companies started manufacturing units in Jammu region. Jammu and Kashmir has only 4% incidence of poverty. The Jammu and Kashmir Bank is listed as S and P CNX 500 Corporation. Jammu and Kashmir industrial development is facing many challenges and Government is taking measures for it.

Tourism in Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu is considered as paradise of earth. It is divided into old city and new city. Sansar is one of the hill stations in Jammu region and it is surrounded by huge conifer trees. Bhaderwah also known as "Mini Kashmir” is gifted with awe-inspiring views. Vaishno Devi Hills are famous for housing Vaishno Devi Temple. Patnitop is famous for adventurous sports. Dal Lake is known as "Jewel in the crown of Kashmir". Apart from these, Mansar Lake, Gauri Kund, Peer Baba, Bahu Fort etc. are some of the tourist attraction in the state.

Festivals Celebrated in Jammu and Kashmir
Baisakhi is celebrated on 13th April as New Year. Eid-ul-Fitr is celebrated after one month of Ramzan. Eid-ul-Azha is also known as Bakri Eid. Hemis festival is a Buddhist festival celebrated on the 9th day of 5th month of Tibetan calendar. Urs also known as Ziarats is the death anniversary of Muslims priests.