Information About Gujarat - History Geography Culture Festivals

History of Gujarat
Gujarat got its name from the Sanskrit word Gurjar. Gujarat was one of the important cities in the Indus valley civilization. In Lothal, India’s first seaport was established. There is a historical evidence of trade and commerce ties between Gujarat and Egypt and Summer. Saka rulers played an important role in Gujarat’s history, which ruled this region for nearly 300 years. Several battles were fought in this region. Aurangzeb, the great Mughal Empire was born in Dahod, Gujarat. On 1st May 1960, based on linguistics, Gujarat was formed with Ahmedabad as its capital city. Later, in 1970 capital city was changed to Gandhinagar.

Geography of Gujarat
Gujarat is located on the western part of the country. It is surrounded by Rajasthan, Union territories of Diu, Daman, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Arabian Sea. It shares international border with Pakistan. It is spread in an area of 196024 sq. km making it the 6th largest state in the country. It has a coastline of 1600 km, highest among other states. Sabarmati is the largest river and Narmada is the longest river in the state. Narmada is one of the three rivers in peninsular India that run from east to west.

Government and Administration of Gujarat
For administration purpose Gujarat is divided into 33 districts. Indian National Congress (INC) and Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) are the major political parties in Gujarat. Gujarat legislative assembly consists of 182 seats in which 13 and 27 are reserved for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes respectively. Gujarat contributes 26 members to the Indian Assembly in which two and four are reserved for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes respectively.

Language and Culture of Gujarat
Gujarat arts and crafts are famous round the globe. Jewelry, colorful linen, beadwork, metalwork items, furniture etc. are some of the famous crafts in the state. Gujarat is well known for furnishings. Dandiya Raas, Garbi, Garba and Padhar are the four prominent traditional dance forms in the state. Gujarati folk music is also known as sugam sangeet. It uses musical instruments like turi, pava, bungal, etc. Folk tradition of storytelling is famous in some parts of the state. Gujarati cuisine is similar to Maharashtra cuisine. Gujarati and Hindi are widely used in Gujarat, followed by Kutchi, Sindhi, Memoni, Urdu, Marwari, Punjabi, Telugu, Tamil, Odia, Malayalam, Bengali and English.

Educational Status of Gujarat
Literacy rate of Gujarat is approximately 80%. Gujarat houses 13 state universities and four agricultural universities. Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology (DA-IICT), Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology IIT are some of the prominent institutes in the state. National Institute of Design is one of the foremost institutions in the field of design education and research. IIM Ahmedabad is one of the best management universities in the world. Gujarat houses Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute. Government initiated Gujarat science city to draw students towards education in science.

Economy of Gujarat
Gujarat is one of the major industrial hubs of India and has some of the largest business corporations in India. Gujarat houses the world’s largest shipbreaking yard in Alang. Almost 100% of Gujarat villages have current throughout the year. In 2010 Forbes declared Ahmedabad is the 3rd world’s fastest growing city. Gujarat is rich in is rich in calcite, lignite, bauxite, gypsum, manganese, etc., and successful mining is done. Gujarat produces about 98% and 78% of India’s soda ash and salt respectively. At "Vibrant Gujarat Global Investor Summit", the state government signed 21000 Memoranda of Understanding for Special Economic Zones worth a total of 2.5 million crores, in January 2015. Gujarat's agriculture mainly depends on cotton production, the rapid growth of high-value foods and wheat production.

Tourism in Gujarat
Gujarat is the birthplace of Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. Presently Amitabh Bachchan is the brand ambassador of Gujarat Tourism. Saputara, Pavagadh, Palitana and Wilson Hills are the hill stations in the state. Gujarat has a wide variety of palaces, historic forts, temples, mosques, and places of historical importance. Gujarat has a rich culture, which is drawing tourists. Gujarat is the Home to multitude devotional centers and temples. Gujarat houses world's rarest Fauna and Flora, in large number. Ahmedabad is becoming one of the medical tourism centers in India.

Festivals Celebrated in Gujarat
International Kite festival is celebrated on 14th January. Bhadra Purnima Fair is celebrated on the full moon day of August or September. Shamlaji Melo is celebrated on the full moon day of karthik month. Vautha Mela has both mythological and economical importance and it is celebrated in the month of Karthik.

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