Crops of India
Rabi crops—These are winter crops sown in October/November and reaped in March/April. These are wheat, barley, gram, linseeds, mustard etc.
Kharif crops—These are the crops raised in rainy season. They are sown in June/July and harvested in September/October. These are maize, rice, cotton, millets etc.
Zaid (Summer) crops—Like Cucurbits— Lauki, Khera, Bhindi, Torai etc. sown in February/March and harvested in May/June.
Cash crops—Crops which are produced for trading purposes and not for consumption by the farmer and his family for subsistence are known as cash crops; e.g., cotton, jute, oil seeds, tobacco, maize (Cobbs) etc.
Chief Crops and the State Producing Them
● Barley—U.P., Rajasthan, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana.● Cardamom—Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
● Cashewnut—Kerala, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Goa and Odisha.
● Coffee—Karnataka, Tamil Nadu (Nilgiri Hills) and Kerala.
●Cotton—Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Punjab, U.P., Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh.
● Gram and Pulses—U.P., Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Maharashtra and Karnataka.
● Ground nut—Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.
● Jute—Asom, West Bengal, Bihar and Odisha.
● Maize—U.P., Bihar, Punjab and Rajasthan.
● Rice—West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, U.P. and Odisha.
● Rubber—Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andman and Nicobar.
● Saffron—Jammu and Kashmir State.
● Sugarcane—U.P., Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, Haryana, Punjab and Gujarat.
● Tobacco—Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, U.P., West Bengal, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka.
● Wheat—U.P., Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra.