Agricultural Biochemistry Notes for ICAR ARS NET JRF Competitive Exams

Dear Aspirants, Most important Agricultural Biochemistry Notes with Answers useful for General Agriculture for ICAR ARS NET Exams and other JRF, SRF, Ph.D., M.Sc. IBPS, AFO, AO, IFS, NABARD Agri Competitive exams and Tests.

1. At what organ in the body is urea produced? – Liver
2. What amino acid is a phenol? – Tyrosine
3. What carries cholesterol from the tissues back to the liver? – HDLs
4. What is the site of action of puromycin? – Aminoacyl tRNA (A site)
5. What is the activated form of vitamin E? – Alpha-tocopherol
6. What type of organisms monocistronic mRNA? – Eukaryotes
7. How many ATPs are generated from glycolysis? – 8
8. What causes transcription to stop in eukaryotes? – The poly(A) site on the DNA
9. How many ATPs are generated per acetyl CoAl? – 12
10. What inhibits complex III of the ETC? – Antimycin A
11. What hormone stimulates glycogen synthesis? – Insulin
12. What enzyme requires selenium (Se) to function? – Glutathione peroxidase
13. What carries triacylglycerols (TAGS) and cholesterol from the diet? – Chylomicrons
14. What is the precursor of all sphingolipids? – Ceramide
15. What amino acid is a good buffer at a pH of 7? – Histidine
16. What two amino acids disrupt an a-helix? – 1. Glycine 2. Proline

17. What enzyme requires molybdenum (Mo) 'as a cofactor? – Xanthine oxidase
18. What determines the rate of a reaction? – The energy of activation (Ea)
19. What substrate concentration is required to produce 1/2 V ma) – Km
20. What vitamin is an important component of rhodopsin? – Vitamin A
21. What elements make up a nucleoside? – A base and' a sugar
22. What is the most common methylated base? – Cytosine
23. DNA is replicated at what phase of the cell cycle? – S phase
24. At which end of DNA are new bases added? – 3' end
25. What pathway utilizes HMG-CoA synthetase in the cytoplasm? – Cholesterol biosynthesis
26. What enzyme creates a short sequence of RNA to start DNA replication? – Primase
27. What is the rate-limiting step of Glycolysis? – PFK-1
28. What is the rate-limiting step of Gluconeogenesis? – Pyruvate carboxylase
29. What is the rate-limiting step of TCA (Krebs) cycle? – Isocitrate dehydrogenase
30. What is the rate-limiting step of Glycogenolysis? – Glycogen phosphorylase
31. What factors are needed for translation in prokaryotes? – EF-G and GTP
32. What type of mutation has the addition or deletion of a base? – Frameshift
33. What type of enzyme is reverse transcriptase? – RNA-dependent DNA polymerase

34. Where is the TATA box in located eukaryotes? – 25 bases downstream (-25)(promoter)
35. What part of the 30S ribosome binds to the Shine-Dalgarno sequence? – 16S subunit
36. What is the start codon for translation? – AUG
37. What vitamin is essential for normal Ca2+ and P04 metabolism? – Vitamin D
38. What test is used to determine whether a gene is expressed? – Northern blotting
39. What is the name for the process of going from mRNA to proteins? – Translation
40. What are the components of a nucleotide? – A base, a sugar, and a phosphate
41. What pH is there no net charge on the structure? – pI (isoelectric point)
42. What enzyme is deficient in alcaptonuria? – Homogentisic acid
43. What factors are needed for elongation in eukaryotes? – EF-1 and GTP
44. What is the rate-limiting step of Fatty acid synthesis? – Acetyl CoA carboxylase
45. What is the rate-limiting step of Cholesterol synthesis? – HMG CoA reductase
46. What is the rate-limiting step of Urea cycle? – Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I
47. Is linolenic acid an omega-3 or -6 fatty acid? – Omega-3; linoleic is omega-6
48. What apoprotein is on the surface of LDL? – Apoprotein B-IOO
49. What apoprotein mediates the uptake of remnants by the liver? – Apoprotein E
50. What delivers cholesterol to the tissues? – LDLs

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