Delhi Sultanate NCERT Notes for UPSC, IAS SSC CGL/CHSL

delhi sultanate notes in english

Qutb al-Din Aibak founded the Delhi Sultanate of Slave Dynasty which had eleven rulers who ruled over Delhi from 1206 to 1290. Mameluk means a slave born of free parents. Iltutmish strengthened the Sultanate founded by his predecessor. Delhi sultanate period of over three hundred years, five dynasties ruled in Delhi. These were: the Slave dynasty (1206-90), Khilji dynasty (1290-1320), Tughlaq dynasty (1320-1413), Sayyid dynasty (1414-51), and Lodhi dynasty (1451-1526).

Qutab-ud-din Aibak (1206-1210)

● Md. Ghori left his Indian possessions in his hands. He ruled on the death of his master and founded this dynasty.
● Lahore and later Delhi were his capitals.
● Famous for his generosity and earned the sobriquet of lakh-baksh (giver of Lakhs).
● Laid the foundation of Qutab Minar after the name of famous Sufi saint, Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki.
● Died of a horse fall at Lahore, while playing Chaugan (polo). The Turks only introduced polo in India.
● Built the first mosque in India-Quwwat-ul-Islam (at Delhi) and Adhai Din Ka Jhonpara (at Ajmer).
● He was a great patron of learning and patronized writers like Hasan Nizami, who wrote Taj-ul-Massir, and Fakhr-ud-din, writer of Tarikh-i-Mubarakshahi.

Iltumish (1210-36)
● Shams-ud-din Iltutmish was the son-in-law of Aibak. He is considered the greatest of the slave kings and the real consolidator of the Turkish conquest in India.
● He suppressea the revolts of ambitious nobles and sent expeditions against the Rajputs in Ranthambor, Jalor, Gwalior, Aimer, Malwa.
● Prevented Chengiz Khan attack by refusing to give refuge to an enemy of Khan, Jalaluddin Mangabarani (a ruler from Iran). Thus, due to his diplomatic skill he prevented Mongol attack.
● He got his authority (Sultanate of Delhi) recognized by the Caliph of Baghdad (Khalifa), as a member of world fraternity of Islamic states.
● He formed Turkan-i-Chahalgani or Chalisa (a group of 40 powerful Turkish nobles to suppress nobles).
● Divided his empire into IQTAS, an assignment of land in lieu of salary, which he distributed to his officers.
● Every Iqtadar had to maintain law and order and collect revenue. After deducting his salary and the expenses of the
● government, he sent the surplus revenue to the Central Government. Iqtadars were transferable.
● He introduced the silver tanka and the copper jital-2 basic coins of the Sultanate.
● He patronized Minhaj-ul-Siraj, the author of Tabaqat-i-Nasiri.
● He is called the Father of Tomb Building (built Sultan Garhi in Delhi).
● As his successor, declared Razia, thus deviating from the normal practice.

Raziya (1236-1240)
● She was the first and the last Muslim woman ruler of medieval India. She succeeded her brother in 1236 and ruled for 31 / 2 Years.
● She disregarded purdah, began to adorn male attire and rode out in public on elephant back.
● She promoted Jamaluddin Yaqut, an Abyssinian, to the important office of superintendent of the stables. It provoked the Turkish nobles. There were simultaneous revolts in the various parts of the kingdom. The Governor of Lahore was the first to create trouble but he was defeated.
● There was a serious rebellion in Bhatinda. Malik Ikhtiyaruddin Altunia, Governor of Bhatinda, refused to acknowledge the suzerainty of Raziya. Raziya, accompanied by Yaqut Mared against Altunia. On the way, the Turkish followers of Altunia murdered Yaqut and imprisoned Raziya. She had to marry Altunia to get out of the situation.
● But she was killed, along with her husband, by Bahram Shah, a son of Iltutmish, on their way back to Delhi.

Balban (1266-1286)
● He himself was a member of Chalisa. To guard himself, he got every member of Iltutmish family killed and gave a death blow to the Turkish nobility (Chalisa). He ordered the separation of military department from the finance department (diwan-i-wizarai), and the former was placed under a ministry for military affairs (diwan-i-ariz).
● The declared the Sultan as the representative of God on earth. He impressed upon the People that king was the deputy of God (niyabat-i-khudai) and the shadow of God (zil-i-ilahi).
● He strengthened the frontiers against Mongols.
● But his son, Muhammad’s death was a smashing blow to Balban and the death-knell to his dynasty.
● After Balban’s death, Kaiqubad (1287-1290) sat on throne but he was an inefficient and fun-loving person.

Jallaluddin Firuz Khalji (1290 - 1296)
● He was the first ruler to put forward the view that since a large majority of people in India are Hindus, the state in India could not be a total Islam state.
● The most important event of his reign was the invasion of Devagiri in 1294 by his nephew and son-in-law, Ali Gurshap or Ala-ud-din Khalji. Devagiri was the capital of the Yadava kingdom in the Deccan and Ala-ud-din plundered the vast treasury.
● Married his daughter to Ulugh Khan, a descendent of Chengiz Khan, to win their goodwill.
● Malik defeated Yadavas of Devagiri (king was Ram Chandra Deva), Kakatiya king Pratap Rudra Deva I of Warangal, Hoysalas of Dwarsamudra (king was Vira Ballala III) and Pandyas of Madurai (king was Maravarman Kulasekhara). He is said to have reached as far as Rameshwaram where he built a mosque. Thus, the whole of Deccan was subjugated.
● He strengthened the North West Frontier under his trusted commander Ghazi Malik.

Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah (1316 - 1320)
● He was one of the sons of Alauddin who, somehow, escaped the preying eyes of Malik Kafur. After the death of Kafur he became the king.
● After seating himself on the throne, he tried to win over the goodwill of the people. He cancelled all harsh regulations started by his father.
● During his reign, many revolts took place across the country. Although he was able to crush them, he wasn’t able to run the administration smoothly.

Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (1320-25)
● Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq or Ghazi Malik was the founder of the Tughlaq Dynasty. This dynasty is also known as the dynasty of the Qaraunah Turks as the father of Ghiasuddin Tughlaq was a Qaraunah Turk.
● He was the first Sultan of Delhi who took up the title of Ghazi or slayer of the infidels.
● He liberalized Alauddin’s administrative policies and took keen interest in the construction of canals and formulated a famine policy. The judicial and police arrangements were made efficient. The Chehra and Dagh system introduced by the Alauddin was continued. Efficient postal services were restored.
● Built the fortified city of Tughlaqabad and made it his capital.
● Dispatched his son, Jauna Khan to re-establish the authority in Warangal (Kakatiyas) and Madurai (Pandyas).
● Had troublesome relationship with the sufi saint, Shaikh Nizamuddin Aulia.
● Died in 1325, after a fall from a high-raised pavilion. Ibn Batuta, the Moroccon traveller, who was in Delhi at that time, opined that his death was due to sabotage arranged by his son, Jauna Khan.

Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (1325-1351)
● Real name was Jauna Khan
● Regarded as the most controversial figure in Indian history, because of his five ambitious projects.
● Increase in the land revenue in the Doab, between Ganga and Yamuna in north India. The measure proved to be ill-timed, as Doab was passing through famine which was followed by plague.
● He was committed to maintaining the Sultanate’s expansion into the newly-conquered provinces of peninsular India. To have better administration of these southern parts of the Empire, Muhammad moved the capital from Delhi to Devagiri in the Deccan, renaming that city Devagiri as Daulatabad. Instead of moving just his government offices there, he forcibly moved the entire population of Delhi to the new capital. The plan failed due to inadequate water supply arrangements in Devagiri; the capital had to be shifted back again to Delhi after two years.
● A vast amount of the population died during the moves due to the inadequate travel arrangements. It was said that Delhi was a ghost town for years after the move back.
● He also had the idea of introducing token currency for the first time in India, modelled after the Chinese example, using copper coins, backed by silver and gold kept in the treasury. However, very few people exchanged their gold/silver coins for the new copper ones and the tokens were easy to forge, which led to heavy losses. Later, the Sultan repealed his verdict and all the copper coins were redeemed in silver or gold from the treasury, making it empty.

Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351-1388)
● He was Muhammad’s cousin. He was chosen the Sultan by the nobles.
● He tried to appease everybody. He cancelled the loans of peasants which had been advanced by his predecessor. He did not give any harsh punishment and banned the inhuman practices like cutting hands, nose, etc. Agriculture was developed by the reclamation of wastelands and by providing irrigation facilities. He constructed four canals for irrigation.
● He made iqtadary system hereditary. The principle of heredity was recognised not only in civil offices, but also in army. Soldiers were given land assignments instead of cash payment. ?Imposed some new taxes :
● Kharaj : a land tax equal to 1/10 of the produce of the land (by Hindus only).
● Jaziya : a tax by non-muslims (even by brahmins).
● Zakat : Tax on property (@ 2.5%) (by Muslims only).
● Khams : 1 / 5th of booty captured in war.

Read in Hindi : दिल्ली सल्तनत के महत्वपूर्ण प्रश्न उत्तर

Sayyid Dynasty
● Khizr Khan (1414-1421) founded the dynasty and claimed to have descended from the prophet of Islam.
● He helped Timur in his invasion, so he was given the governorship of Lahore, Multan & Dipalpur.
● When Khizr Khan got possession of Delhi, his position was very weak and he didn’t take up the title of king and contended himself with that of Rayat-i-Ala.
● The coins were struck and Khutba was read in the name of Timur and after his death in the name of his successor, Shah Rukh.
● Khizr Khan’s 3 successors-Mubarak Shah (1421-33), Muhammad Shah (1434-43) and Alauddin Alam Shah (1443-51) were incapable leaders.
● Sayyid dynasty’s 37 Years remained troubled with external invasions, internal chaos, etc. ?Provided opportunity to Bahlul Lodhi.
● Yahya-bin-Ahmed-bin-Abdullah-Sirhindi wrote Tarikh-i-Mubarakshahi (history from Mahmud to Muhammad Shah of Sayyid Dynasty).

Bahlul Lodhi (1451-1489)
● Conquested Jaunpur by ousting Sharqui dynasty.
● Revived Sultanate to quite an extent.

Sikandar Lodhi (1489-1517)
● Real name was Nizam Khan. Noblest of the three Lodhi rulers.
● Introduced the Gaz-i-Sikandari (Sikandar’s yard) of 32 digits for measuring cultivated fields.
● In 1504, he founded the city of Agra and made it his capital.

Ibrahim Lodhi (1517-1526)
● Repressive ruler. ?Was defeated and killed by Babur in the I Battle of Panipat in 1526.?With this the Sultanate of Delhi ended.

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