Later Mughals (1707-1862 A.D.) : Indian History - UPSC Notes

The last illustrious king of Mughal empire Aurangzeb died in 1707. The Mughal emperors who succeeded him were known as later Mughals. Their later Mughals list is given below.

Bahadur Shah I (1707-1712)

● Aurangzeb died in 1707. A war of succession started amongst his three surviving sons viz. Muazzam-the governor of Kabul, Azam-the governor of Gujarat and Kam Baksh the governor of Bijapur. Muazzam defeated Azam and Kam Baksh and ascended the Mughal throne with the title of Bahadur Shah.
● He pursued pacifist policy and was therefore also called Shah Bekhaber.


● He also assumed the title of Shah Alam I.
● He made peace with Guru Gobind Singh and Chhatrasal. He granted Sardeshmukhi to Marathas and also released Shahu.
● He forced Ajit Singh to submit but later in 1709 recognised him as the Rana of Marwar.
● He defeated Banda Bahadur at Longarh and reoccupied Sirhind in 1711.

Jahandar Shah (1712-13) 
● He ascended the throne with the aid of Zulfikhar Khan.
● His nephew, Farrukh Siyar, defeated him. He abolished Jiziya.

Farrukh Siyar (1713-1719) 
● He ascended the throne with the help of Sayyid brothers Abdullah Khan and Hussain Khan who were Wazir and Mir Bakshi respectively. Farrukh Siyar was killed by the Sayyid brothers in 1719.
● Banda Bahadur was captured at Gurudaspur and executed.

Mohammad Shah (1719-48)
● During his reign, Nadir Shah raided India and took away the peacock throne and the Kohinoor diamond.
● He was a pleasure-loving king and was nicknamed Rangeela.
● Nizam ul Mulk was appointed Wazir in 1722 but he relinquished the post and marched to the Deccan to found the state of Hyderabad.
● Bengal acquired virtual independence during the governorship of Murshid Quli Khan.
● Saddat Khan Burhan-ul-Mulk who was appointed the governor of Awadh by him laid down the foundation of the autonomous state.


Ahmed Shah (1748-1754) 
● During his reign, Ahmed Shah Abdali (one of the ablest generals of Nadir Shah) marched towards Delhi and the Mughals ceded Punjab and Multan.

Alamgir (l754-l759)
● During his reign, Ahmed Shah Abdali occupied Delhi. Later, Delhi was also plundered by the Marathas.

Shah Alam II (1759-1806)
● During his reign, Najib Khan Rohilla became very powerful in Delhi so much so that Shah Alam II could not enter Delhi.
● The Battle of Buxar (1764) was fought during his reign.

Akbar Shah II (1806-37)
● During his reign, Lord Hastings ceased to accept the sovereignty of Mughals and claimed an equal status.

Bahadur Shah II (1837-1862)
● The last Mughal king, who was confined by the British to the Red Fort.
● During the revolt of 1857, he was proclaimed the Emperor by the rebellions.
● He was deported to Rangoon following the 1857 rebellion.

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