About Haryana State - History Geography Population Language

History of Haryana
Haryana got its name from the Sanskrit words Hari and ayana, which means “the Abode of God". Haryana is home to one of the oldest ancient Indus Valley Civilization sites which are 5,000 years old. History believes that Haryana may be the origin of Harappan civilization. Many decisive battles like Battle of Kurukshetra and three battles of Panipat were fought in the state. Haryana was formed on 1st November 1966 by carving out of Punjab. Chandigarh was made a union territory and it is serving as the capital of both Punjab and Haryana.

Geography of Haryana
Haryana is located on the north part of India. It is surrounded by Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Delhi. Haryana is spread in an area of 44212 sq kms, making it the 20th largest state in the country. History says Ancient River Sarasvati has flown from Yamuna Nagar which has now disappeared. Haryana has extremely hot summers and cold winters.

Government and Administration of Haryana
For administration purpose Haryana is divided into four divisions and 21 districts. Bhartiya Janata Party, Indian National Congress Indian National Lok Dal, All India Forward Bloc, Haryana Janhit Congress and Bahujan Samaj Party are the major political parties in the state. Haryana legislative assembly consists of 243 seats. Haryana contributes 10 members to the Indian Assembly in which two are reserved for Scheduled Castes. Punjab and Haryana High Court takes the Jurisdiction responsibilities of Punjab and Haryana and Union territory of Chandigarh.

Language and Culture of Haryana
Haryana’s culture dates back from the Indus Valley Civilization era. Haryana villages are famous for their woven works. Phulkari, Chope, Pottery, Embroidery and Weaving, Durries Bagh and Paintings are some of the important art and crafts of the state. They are one of the major modes of income for the rural people of Haryana. Loor, Gugga dance, Gangor-Puja Dance, Sapela Dance Jhumar, Ghumar Dance, Khoria Dance, Holi Dance are some of the famous dance forms of the state. The 21st century pop-culture has portrayed Haryanvi culture as masculine, arrogant and the language as heavy in Indian media. Haryanavi is widely spoken in the state followed by Hindi, English, Punjabi and dialects like Bangaru, Bagri and Ahirwati. Tamil was Haryana’s second state language from 1947 to 2010, even though no Tamil native was there in state.

Education Status of Haryana
Rohtak, Hisar and Sonipat are the educational hubs of Haryana. Hisar houses three universities including Haryana Agriculture University which is the largest in Asia. Rohtak has nearly 22 colleges within the city. Haryana government provides free education to women up to the bachelor's degree level. Haryana houses National Brain Research Centre which is the only institute in India dedicated to neuroscience research and education. Indian Government is establishing an Atomic Research Centre and AIIMS-II in Haryana.

Economy of Haryana
Haryana’s economy mainly depends on manufacturing, business outsourcing, agriculture and retail. Gurgaon is known as City of the Millennium and it is the hub of call centers. Faridabad houses hundreds of large scale companies. Asia’s largest paper mill and sugar mill are housed in Yamuna Nager. Ambala known as Science city of Haryana is the largest manufacturer of scientific apparatuses. Rohtak has the largest wholesale cloth market in Asia. Kurukshetra has the second largest grain market in Asia. Haryana is the largest manufacturer of passenger cars, two-wheelers, and tractors in India.

Tourism in Haryana
Haryana occupies a strategic location in Indian history. Haryana is famous for adventurous sports like Para sailing, rafting, canoeing, Para gliding, sky diving and also rock climbing. Chandigarh, the capital city of Punjab and Haryana has preserved its ancient beauty while keeping in line with the modern world. Gurgoan has a spiritual importance as it has its place in Mahabharata. Lord Krishna preached Bhagavad Gita to Arjuna in Kurukshetra on the eve of the Kurukshetra war. Panchkula is a satellite city of Chandigarh. The land was named thus as it is home to five irrigation canals.

Festivals Celebrated in Haryana
Gangore is dedicated to Gauri, the goddess of abundance and is celebrated on Chet Sudi. Baisakhi is Punjabi New Year which is quite famous. Gugga Naumi is celebrated in the month of August-September and people worship Gugga Pir who cured people of dangerous snake bites. Surajkund Craft is celebrated in the month of February to show the crafts of state. Kartik Fair is held in November to promote various kinds of art in the state.

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