Different Types of Conjunctions in English Grammar

Correct Usage of Conjunctions
Incorrect :
He had scarcely gone than or but his friend arrived. Correct :
He had scarcely or hardly heard the news than he wept aloud. Correct :
Note : Scarcely और hardly के बाद when या before का प्रयोग किया जाता है, than, but या that का नहीं।

Incorrect :
No sooner had he returned but he was off again. Correct :
Note : No sooner के बाद than का प्रयोग किया जाता है, but का नहीं।

Incorrect :
Unless you do not work hard, you will fail. Correct :
Unless you have no objection, I shall see you tomorrow. Correct :
Note : Unless का अर्थ होता है– ‘if not’, अत: इसके बाद पुन: no, not नहीं लगाना चाहिए।

Incorrect :
He went to Patna because he might see Mr. Mitra. Correct :
He takes medicine because he may get better. Correct :
Note : कारण बताने के लिए because का प्रयोग किया जाता है, किन्तु purpose सूचित करने के लिए in order that या so that का प्रयोग करते हैं।

Incorrect :
He called me as a fool. Correct :
I regard him my brother. Correct :
He was appointed as a clerk. Correct :
Note : Regard, describe, represent, portray, depict, mention, define, treat के बाद as का प्रयोग किया जाता है, किन्तु name, dub, call, oppoint, elect, make, choose, think, consider के बाद as या be का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता है।

Incorrect :
Because he is rude, therefore he is punished. Correct :
Because you are poor, therefore I shall help you. Correct :
Note : एक ही वाक्य में because तथा therefore का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता।

Incorrect :
Supposing if she fails, what will she do ? Correct :
Supposing if she comes late, where will she go ? Correct :
Note : एक ही वाक्य में suppose के बाद if का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता।

Incorrect :
Until you work hard, you will improve. Correct :
Wait here as long as five o’clock. Correct :
Until it rains, I won’t go. Correct :
Note : Until से point of time का बोध होता है; as long as/so long as से period of time का।

Incorrect :
He is as good if not better than his brother. Correct :
He is more polite, but not so intelligent as Tom. Correct :
Note : एक ही वाक्य में यदि दो adjectives एक positive degree और दूसरा comparative में हो तो उनके लिए दो conjunction – positive के लिए as….as, so….as तथा comparative के लिए comparative degree of adjective + than का प्रयोग किया जाता है। एक ही conjunction दोनों degree के
लिए प्रयुक्त नहीं हो सकता।

Incorrect :
If you do not labour, then you cannot pass. Correct :
As he entered the room, then he met me. Correct :
When he saw the tiger, then he was afraid. Correct :
As you are intelligent, so you will pass the exam. Correct :
Note : As, when, if के साथ so या then नहीं लगाया जाता।

Incorrect :
He said that, “I am reading a book.” Correct :
He asked me that how much it cost. Correct :
He enquired that who had done it. Correct :
Tell me that whether you will do it. Correct :
Note : (i) Direct narration में that conjunction का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता। साथ ही, indirect narration में भी how, what, which, whom, why, where, whether, who, whose, when के पहले that नहीं लगता।
(ii) That के प्रयोग में यह ध्यान रखें–
(a) That का प्रयोग प्राय: होता है : agree, assert, assume, calculate, conceive, hold, learn, maintain, reckon, state, suggest के बाद;
(b) That का प्रयोग प्राय: नहीं होता है : believe, presume, suppose, think के बाद;
(c) That का प्रयोग हो सकता या नहीं भी : be told, confess, consider, declare, hear, know, propose, say, see, understand के बाद।

Incorrect :
I have neither written to her or spoken to her. Correct :
He has either a pen nor a pencil. Correct :
He speaks neither English or French. Correct :
Note : Neither के साथ nor; either के साथ or का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

Incorrect :
Either he will obey me or take the consequences. Correct :
He neither speaks English nor French. Correct :
He not only cheated me but also my friend. Correct :
Either the step taken was right or wrong. Correct :
He was both strong in power and will. Correct :
Note : Either…or, neither…nor, both…and, not only…but also हमेशा साथ-साथ रहते हैं तथा इनके बाद प्रयुक्त words में balance रखा जाता है।

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