Sociology Question with Answers asked in UGC-NET/JRF Examination–
1. Who among the following authors initially used the term 'social physics' for Sociology?
(A) Spencer (B) Comte (C) Tonnies (D) Weber (Ans : B)
2. An author thought of 'society to be consisting in the conscious- ness of kind'.
Identify from among the following–
(A) Cooley (B) Ward (C) Simmel (D) Giddings (Ans : D)
3. What does the social relationship primarily involve?
(A) Institutions (B) Religion (C) Consciousness of other people (D) Associations (Ans : C)
4. A group organised to achieve a certain purpose is known as which among the following?
(A) Institution (B) Community (C) Association (D) State (Ans : C)
5. Who among the following thought of religion to an opium of the people?
(A) Freud (B) Mosca (C) Marx (D) Durkheim (Ans : C)
6. Who said: "Civilization is always advancing but not culture. " ?
(A) Johnson (B) MacIver (C) Toynbee (D) Berger (Ans : B)
7. Which is the basic distinction between culture and civilization?
(A) Culture is what we have achieved and civilization is what we aspire to achieve
(B) Culture is what comes out of intelligence but civilization is what comes out of experience
(C) Culture is secondary but civilization is primary
(D) Culture is what we are and civilization is what we have (Ans : D)
8. Ceremonies that mark a critical transition in the life of an individual from one phase of life-cycle to another are called-
(A) Role-taking (B) Rites of Passage (C) Status Crystallization (D) Status set (Ans : B)
9. Who among the following gave the concept of anticipatory socialisation ?
(A) Merton (B) Parsons (C) Homans (D) Sumner (Ans : A)
10. When a girl of the higher caste marries a boy of the lower caste, the system is known as–
(A) Levirate (B) Anuloma (C) Sororate (D) Pratiloma (Ans : D)
11. In the matriarchal family the position of a Woman is recognised to be supreme in all matters.
Which of the following is not its characteristic?
(A) Descent is reckoned through_ mother (B) Marriage relations are not permanent
(C) Wife lives in the house of her husband (D) Property is inheritable by the females (Ans : C)
12. Who has given the concept of atomistic family?
(A) Murdock (B) Zimmerman (C) Durkheim (D) Warner (Ans : B)
13. There is a lot of difference between ancient and modern bureaucracies. Which factor among the following does not denote this difference?
(A) Greater specialization of functions (B) Vastness of modern bureaucracy
(C) Dominant aspect of society (D) Hierarchy of command (Ans : D)
14. The 'looking glass self means that we learn who we are–
(A) By self feeling (B) By an act of imitation
(C) By other people's experience with us (D) By imaging ourselves to be someone else (Ans : A)
15. The 'super ego' according to Freud represents the part of an individual's personality that was created–
(A) Through socialization during the formative years (B) Through socialization in the old age
(C) Through socialization process which occurs throughout one's life (D) None of the above (Ans : C)
16. Which one of the following is not a functional utility of social stratification?
(A) It helps in providing opportunities (B) It develops a spirit of struggle
(C) It helps in deciding responsibility of everyone in the society (D) It helps in identifying unsuitable persons in society (Ans : D)
17. Which of the following theories makes us believe that caste system is not of human but of divine origin ?
(A) Racial theory (B) Political theory (C) Occupational theory (D) Traditional theory (Ans : D)
18. Which one of the following is an essential element of the social class? Feeling of–
(A) Equality among the members of a class (B) Superiority against those who are at the lower ladder of status
(C) Inferiority against those who are at the higher ladder of status (D) All the above (Ans : A)
19. Which of the following concepts are applied to analyse the process of civilization change?
(A) Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft (B) Zweckrational and Wertrational
(C) Mechanical and Organic Solidarity (D) Sensate and Ideational Culture (Ans : D)
20. Who propounded the theory of 'Internal Structure of Role' ?
(A) Radcliffe Brown (B) Nadel (C) Levistrauss (D) Murdock (Ans : B)
21. Who among the following formulated the theory of 'Middle Class' within the Marxian frame- work?
(A) Collins (B) Coser (C) Dahrendorf (D) Engles (Ans : C)
22. According to Radcliffe-Brown, which of the following does not contribute to the integration and' survival of the society ?
(A) Kinship system (B) Leadership (C) Lineage (D) Rituals (Ans : B)
23. Which of the following requisites is not applicable to symbolic system of Malinowski ?
(A) Production and distribution of consumer goods (B) Social control and regulation of behaviour
(C) Organisation and execution of authority (D) Communal rhythm in daily life and activities (Ans : C)
24. In which of the following statements, Durkheim has identified the indirect functions of crime?
(A) Collective sentiment against the infringement of norms (B) Fear of punishment
(C) Flexibility in society (D) None of the above (Ans : A)
25. Who has advocated that functional analysis need not be confined to society as a whole but it can be extended to an organisation, institution or group?
(A) Levistrauss (B) Malinowski (C) Parsons (D) Merton (Ans : C)
26. Which of the following is applicable to Pareto's Logical Action?
(A) Subjectively logical action (B) Objectively logical action
(C) Both subjectively and objectively logical action (D) None of the above (Ans : B)
27. Which of the following is associated with basic principles of symbolic interaction?
(A) People cannot modify the symbols us ed in interaction
(B) People can modify the symbols used in interaction based on subjective understanding
(C) People are able to modify or alter the symbols used in interaction based on the interpretation of situation
(D) People can modify symbols used in interaction based on the capacity to think (Ans : C)
28. According to Marx, which of the following is considered to be the most crucial element for class struggle?
(A) Class interest (B) Class consciousness (C) Class formation (D) Class identity (Ans : B)
29. Who was the first to use the comparative method or indirect experiment method in Sociology?
(A) Max Weber (B) Emile Durkheim (C) Herbert Spencer (D) V. Pareto (Ans : B)
30. Who has used 'participant observation' method for collection of data?
(A) A. R. Radcliffe Brown (B) B. Malinowski (C) S. C. Dube (D) N. K. Bose (Ans : B)
31. Who has written on 'objectivity' in his methodological writings?
(A) W. Dilthey (B) Emile Durkheim (C) Max Weber (D) Daya Krishna (Ans : B)
32. Who has propounded the idea that we can treat social facts (phenomena) as things?
(A) R. K. Merton (B) Paul F. Lazarsfeld (C) Emile Durkheim (D) Max Weber (Ans : C)
33. Which type of question(s) are investigated in exploratory research design ?
(A) Why is it ? (B) What is it ? (C) How is it? (D) All the above (Ans : D)
34. Which method is more suitable for collecting data from non-literate communities?
(A) Questionnaire (B) Observation (C) Both (A) and (B) (D) None of the above (Ans : B)
35. Purpose of case study method is–
(A) To generalize about relationships (B) To explore desired relationships of a phenomenon
(C) To explore maximum possible relationships of a phenomenon (D) To relate it to select relationships of a phenomenon (Ans : C)
36. Which average can be calculated from an open ended table?
(A) Median and Mode (B) Mode and Mean (C) Mean and Median (D) None of the above (Ans : B)
37. When one variable is qualitative and another variable is quantitative, which measure will be for finding covariation between them?
(A) Yule's (Q) (B) Phi coefficient (ϕ) (C) Rank correlation (P) (D) Chi square (x2) (Ans : D)
38. Which of the following methods is known as probability sampling?
(A) A sample selected by lottery from the totality
(B) A sample selected of those who were available
(C) A sample selected considering the purpose of research
(D) A sample selected by considering the various categories of respondents (Ans : A)
39. Which one of the following statistics will be used to find out covariation between two qualitative variables?
(A) Phi (ϕ) (B) Yule's Q (C) Both (A) and (B) (D) None of the above (Ans : C)
40. In which one of the following concepts has M. N. Srinivas explained caste mobility as a process of Social and Cultural change?
(A) Sanskritization (B) Secularization (C) Westernization (D) Modernization (Ans : A)