History of Uttar Pradesh
History believes that Uttar Pradesh region exists from the time of Stone Age. Mythological Kings Rama and Krishna ruled this area. Mauryas, Kushans and Guptas were the important rulers for this area. During the reign of Harshavardhana, the Kannauj Empire had its golden era. Uttar Pradesh was the heartland of Mughal kingdom. After the Second Anglo-Maratha War, in 1803, most of the Uttar Pradesh came under British rule. Capital of the province was shifted from Allahabad to Lucknow in 1920. Uttar Pradesh was the center of Indian politics and was a hotbed of the Indian independence movement. Uttarakhand was formed in 1999 which was separated from Uttar Pradesh.
Geography of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh shares border with Rajasthan, Haryana Delhi, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh. It also shares International border with Nepal. With 243290 sq kms, Uttar Pradesh is the fourth largest state in the country. Uttar Pradesh state has approximately 32 large and small rivers which include the Ganges, Yamuna, Saraswati, Sarayu, Betwa, and Ghaghara. The eastern districts of Uttar Pradesh are subjected to periodical floods and droughts. Uttar Pradesh has a humid subtropical climate with temperature varying from 0 °C to 50 °C.
Government and Administration of Uttar Pradesh
For administration purpose Uttar Pradesh is divided into 18 divisions and 78 districts. Samajwadi Party, Rashtriya Lok Dal, Bahujan Samaj Party, BJP and Congress are the important political parties in the state. Uttar Pradesh gives the largest number of legislators to the Indian Parliament, so it is considered as one of the important states with respect to Indian politics. Uttar Pradesh legislative assembly consists of 404 members. Uttar Pradesh contributes 85 members to the Indian Assembly in which 48 are reserved for Scheduled Castes.
Language and Culture of Uttar Pradesh
Kathak, one of the six foremost classical dances of India, has originated here. Braj Raslila, Ramlila, Charkula, Rasiya are some of the folk arts which originated in this region. Chikankari Embroidery Works, Zardoji Embroidery Works, Zari Works, Jewellery, Perfume are some of the crafts which originated and are famous in this area. Painting had it golden era during Mughal rule. Court music and religious music emerged in this area during the medieval time. Hindi is widely spoken followed by Urdu, Awadhi, Braj Bhasha, Bhojpuri, Bundeli, Kannauji, Khariboli and English.
Education Status in Uttar Pradesh
Sanskrit-based learning was the major part of education from the Vedic to the Gupta periods. As days this region started teaching Pali, Persian and Arabic also. Before British rule, Hindu-Buddhist-Muslim education was having a great time. UP has more than 30 universities including 2 IITs at Kanpur and Varanasi, 1 IIM at Lucknow and 1 NIT at Allahabad. Handicapped University is the only university established exclusively for differently abled in the world.
Economy of Uttar Pradesh
GDP of Uttar Pradesh is 7080 billion which the third is highest in the country. UP’s economy mainly depends on agriculture. Sugarcane is the main commercial crop and wheat is the state's principal food crop. UP produces 70% of India’s sugarcane. In 1954, The Uttar Pradesh Financial Corporation (UPFC) was established to develop small and medium scale industries in the state. Tourism industry also has a major part in the state economy. Lucknow and Noida is becoming a major hub for IT industry. Uttar Pradesh had the largest number of mobile subscribers in the country.
Tourism in Uttar Pradesh
UP have the highest tourists in the country. Uttar Pradesh has access to three World Heritage Sites like - Taj Mahal, Agra Fort, and Fatehpur Sikri. UP has Ayodhya and Mathura birthplace of Lord Rama and Lord Krishna respectively. Agra, Meerut, Jhansi and Lucknow are historical cities which are famous for their monuments also. UP is the birthplace of Gautama Buddha; Kushinagar and Sarnath are important Buddhist places in UP. Mathura, Varanasi, Ayodhya, Vrindavan, Gokul and Allahabad are Hindu religious cities.
Festivals Celebrated In Uttar Pradesh
The Kumbh Mela is celebrated every three years in rotation at Allahabad, Hardwar, Ujjain and Nasik, in the month of January-February on the banks of the holy confluence of rivers Ganga, Yamuna and Saraswati. Maha Kumbh Mela is celebrated once in 12 years. Kampil was the birthplace of the 13th tirthaiikar Brahlan Vimal Nath and Jain Mela is held for five days in the month of March. Rambarat, the marriage procession of Sri Ram is held every year during Ramlila celebrations at Agra. Apart from these all the major festivals in India are celebrated.