Principal Languages of India - Languages of Indian States

Principal Languages of India
India has 22 languages which have been given the grade of National Languages–
• Assamese : It is an Indo-Aryan language and is the official language of Asom.
• Bengali : It is one of the leading Indo-Aryan language and is the official language of Paschim Banga.
• Gujarati : It is an Indo-Aryan language and is the official language of Gujarat.
• Hindi : The largest spoken Indo-Aryan language.
– It is the official language of the Government of India.
– Various dialects of Hindi are Khadboli, Brajbhasha, Bundeli, Awadhi, Marwari, Maithili and Bhojpuri.
– In 6 States and UTs, Hindi is the official language.
• Kannada : It belongs to the Dravidian family and is the official language of Karnataka.
• Kashmiri : It is an Indo-Aryan language.
It is often mistaken as the official language of Jammu and Kashmir.
• Konkani : It is the official language of Goa and is spoken by thousands of Konkanis in aharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala. It was added in 1992 by 71st Amendment.
• Malayalam : Belong to the Dravidian family and is the official language of Kerala.
• Manipuri : It is the official language of Manipur. It was added in 1992 by 71st Amendment.
• Marathi : It is an Indo-Aryan language and is the official language of Maharashtra.
• Nepali : It is spoken in parts of UP, Bihar, Paschim Banga, Asom, etc. It was added in 1992 by 71st Amendment.
• Oriya : It is an Indo-Aryan language and is the official language of Odisha.
• Punjabi : It is an Indo-Aryan language and is the official language of Punjab.
• Sanskrit : It is one of the earliest languages of the world.
– Early Sanskrit is known as Vedic Sanskrit and covers the period between 2000 and 500 BC.
• Sindhi : It is an Indo-Aryan language. It was added in 1967 by 21st Amendment.
• Tamil : It is the oldest of the Dravidian languages and is the official language of Tamil Nadu.
• Telegu : It is numerically the biggest of the Dravidian languages and is the official language of Andhra Pradesh.
• Urdu : It is the official language of Jammu and Kashmir.
Modern Urdu developed due to the efforts of Sir Sayyed Ahmed Khan (1817-1898).
• Dogri : It is generally spoken in Himachal Pradesh and Jammu. It is a combination of ancient Sanskrit and Pahari Dogri languages.
– It has been added by the 92nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003.
• Maithili : It is chiefly spoken in the Maithilianchal region of Bihar. It is the second State language of Bihar.
– It has been added by the 92nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003.
• Santhali : It is chiefly spoken in the area of Chotanagpur Plateau in Jharkhand and Bihar. It has been added by the 92nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003.
• Bodo : It is chiefly spoken in Asom and its adjoining North-East States.
It has been added by the 92nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003.

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