Ancient Bihar had many regions like Anga, Vaishali, Mithila and Magadha, which was ruled by Haryanka dynasty, followed by Shishunaga dynasty, Nanda dynasty and Maurya Empire. After the battle of Buxar in 1764, the British East India Company obtained the diwani rights for Bihar, Odisha and Bengal. During the fight of Independence, Bihar housed many revolutionary activities which made Bihar as one of the important centre for Independence of India. Bihar attained separate statehood in 1936.
Geography of Bihar
Bihar is located on the north eastern part of India. It is surrounded by West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Nepal and Jharkhand in east, west, north and south respectively. It has an average elevation of 53 meters from sea level and spread in 94,163 sq kms. Bihar temperature is subtropical with hot summers and cool winters.
Government and Administration of Bihar
For administration purpose Bihar is divided into nine divisions and 38 states. The major political formations in the state are National Democratic Alliance comprising Bharatiya Janata Party, Lok Janashakti Party, and the Rashtriya Lok Samatha Party and RJD-led coalition comprising Janata Dal United and Indian National Congress. Bihar legislative assembly consists of 243 seats. Bihar contributes 54 members to the Indian Assembly in which eight and five are reserved for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes respectively.
Language and Culture of Bihar
Madhubani painting or Mithila painting is exclusive to Bihar, is done with colored paste made from rice powder. This painting originated at the time of Ramayana. Patna School of Painting also known as Patna Qalaamas and Company Painting, is an offshoot of the well-known Mughal Miniature School of Painting. Pauti, a special container woven out of Sikki grass is given to bride after wedding. Dhobi nach, dom-domin, manjhi, jhumarnach, sohrai nach, jitiyanach, gondnach, bhuiababa, kathghorwa nach are some of the folk dances which has rich traditions and ethnic identity. Folk songs are sung in every important occasion using musical instruments like dholak, bansuri, tabla and harmonium. Bihar cuisine is similar to North-Indian cuisine but, it is influenced by eastern Indian cuisine. Ghugni, Pittha, Chiwra, Kadhi Bari, Khichdi, Sattu, Dhuska and Litti are some of the important traditional dishes. Urdu, Hindi, English, Magahi, Bhojpuri and Maithili are widely spoken in Bihar.
Education Status in Bihar
Bihar houses ancient universities like Nalanda, Odantapura and Vikramashila. After the establishment of Patna University, Bihar saw a revival of its education system. Patna College, Bihar School of Engineering, Prince of Wales Medical College, Science College were built during British rule. Bihar is one of the top three states producing best Engineering Graduates in terms of Quality and Employability. Bihar is pioneer in the field of yoga with its institute Bihar School of Yoga in Munger. Even though Bihar has low literacy rate compared to other states in India, it has many famous colleges and universities.
Economy of Bihar
GDP of Bihar is 3683.37 billion INR in the year 2013/2014. Economy of Bihar mainly depends on services followed by agriculture and industry. Bihar is rich in fertile Gangetic alluvial soil with abundant water resources, particularly ground water resources, which is suitable for agriculture. Sugarcane and jute are the important cash crops of Bihar. Bihar is the largest producer of vegetables, litchi and third largest producer of pineapples. Bihar has only 1% of industries installed in India, making it the smallest industrial base in India.
Tourism in Bihar
Bihar is a sacred place for Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Islam religions. In ancient days, tourism was mostly for educational purpose as it contains many old universities. Bihar houses Mahabodhi Temple, a Buddhist shrine and also a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Mahatma Gandhi Setu, one of the longest bridges in the world is in Patna, Bihar. Nalanda, Gaya, Bodh Gaya, Pataliputra, Maner Sharif, Arrah, Vikramashila, Patna, Buxar, Agna are some of the pilgrim centers in the state. Golghar, Patna Museum, Kargil chowk are important structure in the state. Bihar is well connected by air, road and rail.
Festivals Celebrated In Bihar
Chaiti Chhath is celebrated in summer where as Karthik Chhath is celebrated after a week of diwali. Chhath is worship to Sun God. Shravani Mela is celebrated in the Hindu month of Shravan, people wear saffron colored clothes and collect water from a sacred Ghat at Sultanganj, then walk barefooted 108 km to the town of Deoghar, there to bathe a sacred Shiva–Lingam. Teej, Chitragupta Puja, Bihula-Bishari Puja, The Sonepur cattle fair are the local festivals in Bihar. Apart from these all the major festivals in India are celebrated.